Last week I tried switching a library to Gtk3. The needed changes to the code are available through --with-gtk3. However this is generally not enough. Even if your symbol list doesn't change, the ABI changes implicitly. The library in question had a .symbols file, but that's not enough because the resulting GUI application will bail out at runtime if symbols of both Gtk2 and Gtk3 are found in the same address space. That's mostly because C symbols don't contain any signatures with return types and parameters.
So if your library upstream did not change the soname for the Gtk3 build, please encourage them to do so. Also keep in mind that this most likely means new pkg-config files specific to the Gtk3 build, too. At least if you want your reverse-depends to be able to build against either Gtk2 or Gtk3 in a predictable way.
An example is this change to gtk-vnc, which uses gtk-vnc-2.0 as the new API/pkg-config name for the Gtk3 build, gtk-vnc-1.0 remains the old Gtk2 one. The soname changes from libgtk-vnc-1.0.so.0 to libgtk-vnc-2.0.so.0.
(Thanks to Michael Biebl and Julien Cristau for pointing out the obvious to me.)